Links to Protestant Churches


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Page table of contents:


Amish, Brethren, Mennonite, and Quaker churches

Anglican and Episcopal

Apostolic-succession independent churches


Christian Churches (Stone-Campbell Movement)

Church of God churches

Community churches

Congregational (including United Churches)

Fundamentalist/Bible churches

“Hebrew-Christian” or “Messianic-Jewish” groups

Holiness churches



Native American Christian churches

Pentecostal and Apostolic churches

Pietist churches


Protestant ecumenical- and mixed-tradition churches


Unclassified Protestant denominations and churches



   Advent Christian Church

   Branch Davidians

Branch Davidians generally

Biblical Research Institute Background on the Branch Davidians

Religious Movements Homepage Branch Davidians

   Christian Churches of God

   Church of God General Conference (Morrow, Georgia)

CGGC generally

Atlanta Bible College-Church of God General Conference

   Seventh Day Church of God churches (adventist and sabbitarian CoGs)

[Note that most “Churches of God” are listed on the Pentecostal and apostolic churches page.]

     Church of God (Seventh Day) (Denver, CO)

     Church of God (7th Day) (Salem, WV)

     Church of God (7th Day) (Jerusalem, Israel)

     Church of God Seventh Day (Meridian, ID)

     Church of God Seventh Day Caldwell, ID [No online site]

Seventh Day CoG (Adventist and sabbitarian) generally

   Seventh-day Adventist Church

Seventh-day Adventism generally

Religious Movements Homepage Seventh-Day Adventist

   Seventh-Day Adventist tradition churches

     Creation 7th Day Adventist Church

     Yahweh’s New Covenant Assembly

     General Association of Davidian Seventh-Day Adventists




Amish, Brethren, Mennonite, and Quaker churches

[These churches are also sometimes called “Free churches.” Many are also called Anabaptist. The links have been moved to a separate page due to length. Click the link above.]


Anglican and Episcopal churches

[These listings now have their own page due to their length. Click the link above.]


Apostolic-succession independent churches

[“Independent” in the sense that they are in apostolic succession, but not wholly within the Anglican, Catholic, or Orthodox traditions. The independent apostolic-succession church listings now have their own page due to their length. Click the link above.]


Baptist churches

[The Baptist church listings now have their own page due to their length. Click the link above.]


Christian Churches (Stone-Campbell Movement)

   Christian Church (Disciples of Christ)

   Christian Churches/churches of Christ [unofficial]

Christian Churches and Churches of Christ generally

Christian Churches and Churches of Christ

From the BELIEVE information Website

Encyclopedia of Religion in the South (Christian Churches and Churches of Christ)

At the Center for Restoration Studies

   Christian Congregation, The

   Churches of Christ (non-instrumental) [unofficial]

[Divided by Melton into Conservative, Non-Sunday School, One-Cup, Pre-millennial, and Pentecostal branches, but none have any central structure.]

Churches of Christ (non-instrumental) generally

Churches of Christ

From Wikipedia

Churches of Christ Network

   Evangelical Christian Church, Inc., The

   International Churches of Christ [unofficial]

   Tioga River Christian Conference [no Website]

   Restoration tradition churches outside North America

      Community of Disciples of Christ (DR Congo) [Communaute de Disciples du Christ] [no Website]

General Restoration Stone-Campbell

Christian Church Denominations

Restoration Movement

Stone-Campbell Restoration Movement Resources

World Convention of Churches of Christ


Church of God churches

[Note: The 11th edition of Mead and Hill no longer lists “Church of God” as a category of Protestant denominations. Instead they are scattered between Adventist, Pentecostal and other entries. Avowedly Adventist and sabbitarian “churches of God” are entered in the “Adventist churches” section on this page. Most others are in the Pentecostal and Apostolic churches page. For Worldwide Church of God and its offshoots, see the bottom of this page in the “Unclassified Protestant churches” section. The Church of God (Anderson, IN) is a Holiness church.]


Community churches

   Community Churches, International Council of



Congregational churches (including United Churches)

[Looking for Congregational tradition churches outside of North America Click here.]

   Congregational Christian Churches in Canada

   Congregational Christian Churches, National Association of

   Conservative Congregational Christian Conference

   Midwest Congregational Christian Church [no online site]

   United Church of Canada

   United Church of Christ

   Congregational and United churches outside the U.S. [Listed on separate Web page]

Congregationalism generally


A reference page maintained by the Ketishtown Congregational Church (UK)

International Congregational Fellowship

Online resource hosted by Congregational Federation in the United Kingdom

World Evangelical Congregational Fellowship

An international evangelical Congregational union



Fundamentalist/Bible churches

[Click here for a note on the differentiation between “Holiness,” “Apostolic,” Pentecostal,” and “Fundamentalist and Bible” churches.]

   American Evangelical Christian Churches

AECC generally

American Evangelical Bible College


   Berean Fellowship of Churches

Berean Churches

Berean Community Church [Rochester, MN]

Cheyenne [WY] Berean Church

Crete [NE] Berean Church

Grenada [CA] Community Berean Church

Lincoln [NE] Berean Church

Oak Lake [Maitoba] Berean Bible Church

BFC generally

Fellowship History

Maranatha [NE] Bible Camp

   Bible Presbyterian Church

   Fellowship of Fundamental Bible Churches

   Grace Gospel Fellowship

   IFCA International (fmr. Independent Fundamental Churches of America)

   Maranatha Christian Fellowship Church

   Plymouth Brethren

     Exclusive Brethren [No online site]

Exclusive Brethren Information

My Brethren: The history and ministry of those brethren commonly called ‘exclusive’

     Open Brethren [No online site]

Gospel Hall

Assembly Homepages

Plymouth Brethren generally

The Plymouth Brethren

Plymouth Brethren | Welcome!

Brethren Online

   Rhema Ministries

     Rhema Bible Church aka Kenneth Hagin Ministries, Inc. [founding location]

     Rhema Austria

     Rhema Brazil

     Rhema Colombia

     Rhema Germany

     Rhema India

     Rhema Italia

     Rhema Mexico

     Rhema Ministries [South Africa]

     Rhema Ministries Europe

     Rhema Romania

     Rhema Singapore

     Rhema South Pacific

   Fundamentalist churches outside North America

     Church of the Christian Alliance (Burkina Faso) [Eglise de l` Alliance chretienne]

     Evangelical Church of Cameroon [Eglise evangelique du Cameroun]

     Evangelical Community in Congo [Communaute evangelique du Congo]



“Hebrew-Christian” or “Messianic-Jewish” groups

[Note: generally, churches and groups included here accept Jesus Christ as Messiah but also believe that observance of God’s Law as given to the Jewish people is still required, or believe that it is possible for Jews to accept Christ without losing Jewish or Hebrew tradition. I’m not sure that all the groups listed here would agree that they are correctly listed. Many regard themselves as “Jewish” or “Hebrew.” The Task Force on Missionaries and Cults of the Jewish Community Relations Council emphatically argues that they are not Jewish. I would appreciate feedback on whether such groups should be listed here or on the Cults, Sects, and New Religious Movements page.]

   Ariel Ministries

   Arm of Salvation

   Chosen People Ministries

   Church of God and Saints of Christ [“Christian Israelites”]

   Friends of Israel Gospel Ministry

   Hope Of Israel Baptist Mission

   Jews for Jesus

   Jesus Messiah Fellowship

   Messianic Jewish Alliance of America

   Messianic Jewish Movement International

   New Covenant Church of God - B'rit Chadashah Assembly of Yahweh

   New Covenant House Church Fellowship



Holiness churches

[Click here for a note on the differentiation between “Holiness,” “Apostolic,” Pentecostal,” and “Fundamentalist and Bible” churches.]


   American Rescue Workers

   Allegheny Wesleyan Methodist Connection of Churches

   Association of Fundamental Ministers & Churches [No online site]

   Bible Fellowship Church

   Bible Holiness Church [No online site]

   Bible Holiness Movement [No online site]

   Bible Methodist Connection of Churches [Listed here because of its membership in the IHC]

   Bible Methodist Connection of Tennessee [No online site]

   Bible Missionary Church

   Christ Holy Sanctified Church of America [No online site]

   Christian and Missionary Alliance, The

   Christian Nation Church, U.S.A. [No online site]

   Christian Union

   Christ's Sanctified Holy Church

   Church of Christ (Holiness) U.S.A.

   Church of God (Anderson, Indiana)

   Church of God (Guthrie, OK)

   Church of God (Holiness)

   Church of God (Independent Holiness People) [No online site]

   Church of God (Sanctified Church) [No online site]

   Church of God (Which He Purchased with His Own Blood) [No online site]

   Church of the Bible Covenant [No online site]

   Church of the Nazarene

   Churches of Christ in Christian Union

   Churches Of God (Holiness) [No online site]

   Evangelical Congregational Church

   Evangelical Church of North America

   Evangelical Missionary Church of Canada

   Evangelical Wesleyan Church [No online site]

   Evangelistic Missionary Fellowship [No online site]

   Fire Baptized Holiness Church of God of the Americas

   Free Methodist Church in Canada

   Free Methodist Church of North America

   God’s Missionary Church

   Gospel Spreading Church [No online site]

   Grace and Hope Mission [No online site]

   Independent Conservative Holiness Churches

   International Conservative Holiness Association

   Independent Holiness Churches of Canada

   Lumber River Annual Conference of the Holiness Methodist Church [No online site]

   Metropolitan Church Association (“Burning Bush Movement”) [No online site]

   Missionary Church

   Missionary Methodist Church of America

   Mount Calvary Holy Church Of America

   National Association of Holiness Churches [No online site]

   Parkville Bible Church [No online site]

   Pilgrim Holiness Church of New York, Inc.

   Pilgrim Holiness Church of the Midwest [No online site]

PHC of the Midwest generally

Union Bible College

Seminary for the PHC of the Midwest

   Pilgrim Nazarene Church

   Pillar of Fire, Inc.

   Rescue Missions, Association of Gospel

   Salvation Army

   Salvation Army, Canada and Bermuda

   Triumph the Church and Kingdom of God in Christ

   True Jesus Church

   United Holiness Church of North America [No online site]

   Voice of the Nazarene Association of Independent Churches

   Volunteers of America

   Wesleyan Church, The

   Wesleyan Holiness Association of Churches

   Wesleyan Tabernacle Association [No online site]

   Holiness and Apostolic churches outside of North America

     Ecuadorian Evangelical Church of the Christian and Missionary Alliance [Iglesia Evangelica Ecuatoriana Alianza Cristiana y Misionera]

     Immanuel General Mission [Japan] [No online site]

Holiness and Apostolic churches generally

American Holiness Movement

An essay by R V Pierard in Walter A. Elwell, Evangelical Dictionary of Theology, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1984, quoted on the BELIEVE Religious Information Source Website

Christian Holiness Partnership

The purpose of the Partnership is to promote the message of Scriptural Holiness, mostly through camp meetings

Holiness churches and ministries

On the Free Gospel Bible Institute Website

Holiness and Pentecostal Churches: Emerging from Cultural Isolation

An essay by Donald W. Dayton, associate professor of historical theology at Northern Baptist Theological Seminary

Importance of The Pentecostal and Holiness Churches in The Ecumenical Movement

On the Ecudocs: Ecumenism and Mission page hosted by the Boston Theological Institute

National Association of Evangelicals

Several Holiness denominations are members

Towards The Common Expression of The Apostolic Faith Today

On the Ecudocs: Ecumenism and Mission page hosted by the Boston Theological Institute



[Looking for the ELCA? Click here. Looking for Lutheran churches outside of North America? Click here.]

   American Association of Lutheran Churches

   Apostolic Lutheran Church of America

   Association of Free Lutheran Congregations

   Association of Free Lutheran Congregations in Canada

   Association of Independent Evangelical Lutheran Churches

   Augustana Orthodox and Evangelical Lutheran Synod [No online site]

Augustana Orthodox and Evangelical Lutheran Synod generally

NEWS BRIEFS - Christianity Today Magazine

Advent Lutheran Church in Roseville, MN, joins synod

   Canadian Association of Lutheran Congregations

   Church of the Lutheran Brethren of America

   Church of the Lutheran Confession

   Concordia Lutheran Conference

   Conservative Lutheran Association

   Estonian Evangelical Lutheran Church Abroad

   Evangelical Catholic Church

   Evangelical Community Church — Lutheran

   Evangelical Lutheran Church in America

ELCA generally

Roots of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America

   Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (Eielsen Synod)

   Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada

   Evangelical Lutheran Conference and Ministeriuim

   Evangelical Lutheran Federation [No online site]

   Evangelical Lutheran Synod

   Fellowship of Lutheran Congregations

   “Independent”, non-synodical, Lutheran churches
[Note: the general principal for this site is to include only “denominations” or “churches” in the listings. In that regard, this site generally follows the policy used in Mead, Hill, and Atwood’s Handbook of Denominations in listing only groups with at least two parishes. But there are several loosely-aligned Lutheran churches, that are self-described “independent” churches but which share similar outlooks (many calling themselves “Confessional” Lutherans). So I have included their listings here.]

     A Mighty Fortress Lutheran Church [Glendale, AZ]

     Bethany Lutheran Church [New Ulm, PA]

     Concordia Lutheran Church (Lutherska Konkordiekyrkan) [Hägersten, Sweden]

     Cristo Nueastra Justicia Independent Confessional Lutheran Fraternity Congregation [Buenos Aires, Argentina]

     Holy Cross Lutheran Church [Midland, MI] [No online site]

     Immanuel Gemeinde Evangelical Lutheran Church [Steeden, Germany]

     Mighty Fortress Orthodox Evangelical Lutheran Church [Anaheim, CA]

     New Hope Lutheran Church [Newport News, VA]

   International Lutheran Fellowship

   Laestadian Lutheran Church

   Latvian Evangelical Lutheran Church in America [No online site]

   Lithuanian Evangelical Lutheran Church in Diaspora (Lietuviu Evangeliku Liuteronu Bažnycia Išeivijoje) [No online site]

   Lutheran Church Protestant Conference [No online site]

   Lutheran Church — Canada

   Lutheran Church — Missouri Synod

   Lutheran Churches of the Reformation

   Lutheran Conference of Confessional Fellowship

   Lutheran Confessional Synod

   Lutheran Congregations in Mission for Christ

   Lutheran Ministerium and Synod - USA

   Norwegian Seamen's Mission

   Protest’ant Conference [No online site]

Protest’ant Conference generally

The Lutheran Resource Page: Information on the Protest'ant Conference

From the Lutheran Resource Site

God's Message to Us in Galatians: The Just Shall Live By Faith

The paper delivered by Pastor W.F. Beitz that became the focal point of the Protes'tant Controversy

   Renewal in Missouri

   The Lutheran Church--Missouri Synod

   Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod



   Lutheran Churches outside of North America

     Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference [listed on separate page]

     International Lutheran Council [listed on separate page]

     Lutheran World Federation [listed on separate page]

Lutherans generally

A Little Lecture On Little-Known Lutheran Synods

A paper by E. C. Fredrich presented at the Metropolitan North Pastoral Conference 1983, Milwaukee, WI

Lutheran Central - Connecting Lutherans

Lutheran Central is a very useful Web information resource

Lutheran Church Bodies in North America

Valparaiso University, Office of Church Relations, Lutheran denomination finder

Lutheran Theology Web Site

David Jay Webber’s very comprehensive Web reference

Pastor Zip’s Lutheran Web Links

A quite useful resource compiled by Pr. Steven Paul Tibbetts, Zion Evangelical Lutheran Church, Peoria, IL

Pastor Zip's International Lutheran Web Links

And another of Pr. Tibbetts’ pages

The Lutheran Resource Page: Home pages

From the Lutheran Resouce Site



   African Methodist Episcopal Church

   African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church

   African Union First Colored Methodist Protestant Church and Connection, Inc.

   Allegheny Wesleyan Methodist Connection [No online site]

   Association of Independent Methodists

   British Methodist Episcopal Church of Canada [No online site]

BME Canada generally

S.R. Drake Memorial Church (Brantford, ON), British Methodist Episcopal Church of Canada

Website of a member church

   Christian Methodist Episcopal Church

Christian Methodist Episcopal Church generally

Christian Methodist Episcopal Church

   Congregational Methodist Church

   Evangelical Methodist Churches

   Evangelical Methodist Church (Kingsport, TN)

   Fellowship of Fundamental Bible Churches

   First Congregational Methodist Church of the U.S.A. [No online site]

   Free Christian Zion Church of Christ [No online site]

   International Fellowship of Bible Churches

   Fundamental Methodist Church, Inc. [Unofficial]

   Methodist Protestant Church [No online site]

   New Congregational Methodist Church [No online site]

   Primitive Methodist Church in the U.S.A.

   Reformed Methodist Union Episcopal Church [No online site]

   Reformed Zion Union Apostolic Church [No online site]

   Southern Congregational Methodist Church

   Southern Methodist Church

   Union American Methodist Episcopal Church [No online site]

   United Methodist Church

   Methodist Churches outside North America

     Methodist Church in Ireland

     Methodist Church in Wales [No online site]

     Methodist Church of Great Britain

     Uniting Church in Australia

     United Church of Canada

Methodism generally

All the divisions in American Methodism

From Linda Morgan Clark’s “Kansas Methodism” Webpage

Divisions and Reunions in North American Methodism

A timeline complied on the University Evangelical Methodist Church of Denton, TX, Website

 Faith In Action - One Voice for Christ - Official Website of The United Methodist Church

A resource on the history of Methodism, from the United Methodist Church’s site

Methodism and Fundamentalism: A Survey BJU -- J. S. Mack Library

A site on the J.S. Mack Library site at Bob Jones University

World Methodist Council

A resource for finding Methodist churches outside of North America


Native American Christian churches

   Cherokee Prayer Initiative

   Eagle’s Wings Ministry

   Spirit of the Eagle Ministries

   Wiconi International


Pentecostal and Apostolic churches

 [These churches are listed on a separate page due to their large number. Click link above.]


[Click here for a note on the differentiation between “Holiness,” “Apostolic,” Pentecostal,” and “Fundamentalist and Bible” churches. Read the note also for information on why this section is sub-divided into “families” of Pentecostal and Apostolic churches.]


Pietist churches

[Note: Amish churches are listed under Mennonite and Anabaptist churches]

   Church of the United Brethren in Christ [Entered here because it is the continuing church after the 1899 split in which the breakaway group became part of the Methodist Church]

   Evangelical Congregational Church

   Evangelical Covenant Church

   Evangelical Free Church of America

   Moravian churches

     Moravian Church (Unitas Fratrum) in America

     Moravian Churches (Unitas Fratrum) outside North America

o       Mission Association of the Moravian Church in Germany

o       Moravian Church in Denmark

o       Moravian Church in Great Britain and Ireland

o       Moravian Church in the Netherlands

     United Christian Church (Cleona, PA) [No online site]

     Unity of the Brethren

   Pietist-tradition churches outside North America

     Evangelical Community in Ubangi-Mongala (DR Congo) [Communaute evangelique en Ubangi-Mongala]

     Evangelical Community of Christ in Ubangui (DR Congo) [Communaute evangelique du Christ en Ubangui]

     Evangelical Covenant Church [Iglesia del Pacto Evangelico en el Ecuador]

     Evangeligal Free Church of Finland [Suomen Vapaakirkko]

     Free Mission Covenant Church (Finland) [Fria Missionsförbundet]

     Swedish Mission Covenant Church



[Looking for Presbyterian churches outside of North America? Click here.]

   American Reformation Presbyterian Church

   Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church

   Associated Presbyterian Churches in Canada

   Cumberland Presbyterian Church

   Cumberland Presbyterian Church in America

   Evangelical Presbyterian Church

   Free Presbyterian Church

   Korean American Presbyterian Church [미주한인예수교장로회]

   Korean Presbyterian Church in America, General Assembly of the

   Orthodox Presbyterian Church

   Presbyterian Church in America

   Presbyterian Church in Canada

   Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.)

   Presbyterian Reformed Church

   Reformed Presbyterian Church (Covenanted) [Steelite Covenanters]

   Reformed Presbyterian Church General Assembly

   Reformed Presbyterian Church of North America

   Ukrainian Evangelical Alliance of North America [No online site]

   Upper Cumberland Presbyterian Church

   Presbyterian Churches outside North America [Listed on separate Web page]

Presbyterian Churches generally

International Conference of Reformed Churches

Only member churches describing themselves as “Presbyterian” are listed here.

Reformed Ecumenical Council

Worldwide association of Reformed churches. Churches describing themselves as “Presbyterian” are listed under that here.

World Alliance of Reformed Churches

Generally, members of the WARC are listed in either here or in the Congregational sections.


Protestant ecumenical- and mixed-tradition churches
[Such as the Union of Union of the Waldensian and Methodist Churches in Italy or the many churches in Africa founded by missionaries of more than one church. These churches have their own Webpage. Click here.]


Reformed churches

[Looking for Reformed churches outside of North America? Click here .]

   Canadian and American Reformed Churches

   Christian Reformed Church in North America

   Churches of God, General Conference

   Federation of Orthodox Christian Reformed Churches [no Web site – defunct?]

   Free Reformed Churches of North America

   Greek Evangelical Church [Ελληνική Ευαγγελική Εκκλησία]

[In the “Reformed Churches” section due to its membership in the Reformed Ecumenical Council. Listed here due to its parishes in Boston and Toronto. See listing in Reformed Churches outside the North America for main church in Greece.]

   Heritage Reformed Congregations

   Hungarian Reformed Church in America

   Netherlands Reformed Congregations

   Protestant Reformed Churches in America

   Reformed Church in America

   Reformed Church in the United States

   Reformed Church of Quebec [Église Réformé du Québec]

   United Reformed Churches in North America

   Reformed Churches outside North America [listed on separate Web page]

Reformed Churches generally

International Conference of Reformed Churches

Association of Reformed churches (generally “liberated” Reformed churches). Churches describing themselves as “Presbyterian” are listed under that section.

Liberated Reformed Churches

An explanation of what “reformed-liberated” means.

Reformed Ecumenical Council

Worldwide association of Reformed churches. Churches describing themselves as “Presbyterian” are listed under that section.

World Alliance of Reformed Churches

Generally, members of the WARC are listed in either the Presbyterian or the Congregational sections.

Übersicht South Africa

Information on various Reformed Churches in South Africa.



Unclassified Protestant denominations and churches

NB: This section includes: Christian churches with what Melton terms a “Communal” tradition (Melton, p. 615, see full citation to book on the References page); churches with heterodox doctrine and/or no readably apparent descent from one of the historical Protestant streams; and, what Melton terms “mail order churches” (Melton, p. 583). To avoid any pejorative connotation, I categorize this last category as “Individual membership churches” to reflect the fact that many have few if any fixed congregations and tend to have seminaries whose students are largely pursuing “distance” education.

   Communal churches

      Amana Church Society

   Heterodox denominations

     Alliance for Renewal Churches

     Metropolitan Community Churches, Universal Fellowship of 

     New Apostolic Church

     Worldwide Church of God

     Worldwide Church of God spin-offs

        Associates for Scriptural Knowledge

        Association for Christian Development

        Church of God Southern California

        Church of God, a Christian Fellowship

        Church of God, in Truth

        Church of God, International, The (Tyler, Texas)

        Churches of God Outreach Ministries

        Living Church of God

        Philadelphia Church of God

        Restored Church of God

        Triumph Prophetic Ministries

        United Church of God, an International Association

WCG spin-offs generally

Key To WCG Organizations

      Individual membership churches

     Chaplaincy of Full Gospel Churches

     Church of the Golden Rule

     United Full Gospel Churches

     United Full Gospel Church Association

   Unclassified denominations outside North America

     RPF International Church [Rabat, Morocco]


Protestantism generally

Churches Uniting in Christ

Lesley A. Northup, FIU, List of North Am Religions

Protestantism in the 20th century -

Religion Community -- Religions Online

The History of Protestantism

The Primitive Christian - Index

The Religious Movements Page: Group Profiles Orientation

The Unofficial Home Page of the One, Holy, Catholi

Penecostal, non-Penecostal and Cults


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A note on the definition of “Holiness,” “Pentecostal,” “Apostolic,” and “Fundamentalist” churches

What’s the difference between “Holiness” and “Apostolic” churches? Some might argue that one or the other should be grouped together. Mead tends to group Holiness and Apostolic churches. Melton groups Apostolic and Pentecostal churches together. In a 1979 essay in the Christian Century, August 15-22, 1979, Donald W. Dayton, professor of historical theology at Northern Baptist Theological Seminary, made the following distinction: “Holiness churches, largely a product of the Methodist tradition, follow those who in the ethos of the 19th century camp meeting preserved a variation of the Wesleyan doctrine… Distinctly ‘Holiness’ churches do not speak in tongues…. Pentecostal churches teach that Pentecost is a repeatable experience available to Christians in all ages and usually that its appropriation is ‘evidenced’ by speaking in tongues.”  Dayton thus concludes that, “there is an appropriateness in treating the two traditions together. Historians increasingly agree that Pentecostalism emerged at the turn of the century largely from a radical wing of the Holiness movement emphasizing ‘divine healing’ and the imminent return of Christ.”

That said, however, Dayton does go on to propose that Holiness and Pentecostal churches can be divided into three groupings, “(1) the largely white Holiness churches, especially those in the Christian Holiness Association (CHA); (2) the white Pentecostal churches in the Pentecostal Fellowship of North America (PFNA); and (3) a more diffuse grouping of ethnic Pentecostal churches dominated by black Pentecostalism.”

Melton argues that Pentecostal churches can be divided into seven families. Three meta families have formed around issues of doctrine. “Holiness” Pentecostals (the earliest of whom tended to come from Methodist/Holiness traditions) see the Pentecostal experience (baptism in the Holy Spirit and speaking in tongues). In apposition are Pentecostals from traditions such as the Baptist, who insist that any believer can have the Pentecostal experience. The third family consists of churches that stress the “oneness” of God and are non-Trinitarian in the sense of Matthew 28:19. This family is often referred to as the “Apostolic”,  “Oneness”, or “Jesus-only” movement. Each of these three doctrinal divisions is further, Melton argues, sub-divided by race as a matter of history. (Some were not racially divided initially, but most came to be thoroughly divided, Melton says, in the first half of the 20th Century. The seventh Pentecostal family identified by Melton derives from Hispanics who attended the Azuza Street revival and exported the experience to Latin America and then back to the United States.

I have, after some vacillating, adopted Melton’s approach, as it is supported by Dayton. I treat Holiness churches as distinctive, due to their Methodist/Wesleyan roots, and I have grouped Apostolic and Pentecostal churches together, divided into the seven-family taxonomy suggested by Melton. I contrast the Pentecostal/Apostolic churches from Fundamentalist groups, which focus primarily on doctrine and the inerrancy of Scripture, and not justification, sanctification, and/or the works of the Holy Spirit.